by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC .
Written in English
Distributed to depository libraries in microfiche
|Statement||Ravi K. Srivastava|
|Contributions||Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||11 p. :|
|Number of Pages||11|
of fuel nitrogen to NOx varies greatly, however; typically from 20 to 90 percent of nitrogen in oil is converted to NOx. Except in certain large units having unusually high peak flame temperatures, or in units firing a low nitrogen content residual oil, fuel NOx generally accounts for over 50 percent of the total NOx generated. The technology described in this paper was developed under the DOE/ NASA Low NOx Heavy Fuel Combustor Concept Program (Contract DEN). Novel combustor concepts were designed for dry reduction of thermal NOx, control of NOx from fuels containing high levels of organic nitrogen, and control of smoke from low hydrogen content : D. J. White, A. Batakis, R. T. LeCren, H. G. Yacobucci. The experiments guided by the modeling have led to significant reduction in NOx emission; NOx was reduced from a level of lb/ Btu ( ppm @ 3% 02) in a single stage flame to lb/ Btu (80 ppm @ 3% 02) in staged combustion when the fuel equivalence ratio in the fuel rich stage was maintained in the range of = to (50 to 70% fuel rich), very close to that predicted from the Cited by: 2. The nitrogen content of these fuels ranges from to %, which is helpful to understand the NOx emission characteristics for a wide range of fuels. Moreover, this range of nitrogen content covers most of the fuels, so its correlation with NOx release behavior may be much universal.
The combustion strategies that were investigated premix the majority of the fuel and do not require exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for low- to mid-load engine operation. These types of advanced compression ignition combustion strategies have been shown to have challenges with combustion phasing control. Advantages of Fuels with High Resistance to Auto-ignition in Late-injection, Low-temperature, Compression Ignition Combustion Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke can be simultaneously reduced in compression ignition engines by getting combustion to occur at low temperatures and by delaying the heat release till after the fuel and. 1) note that the emission varies widely depending on application temperatures and air/fuel ratios. In general - higher combustion temperature and higher air/fuel ratios increases NO x emissions.. 2) zero emission for hydrogen is a theoretically value. In practice hydrogen burned in air produces more NO x than natural gas due to the high flame speed. 3) catalytic systems common on most modern. Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) The primary nitrogen pollutants produced by combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and are generally referred to collectively as sing evidence suggests that NOx has a direct negative effect on the human respiratory system and when exhausted into the atmosphere, reacts with moisture to produce ozone and acid rain.
COMBUSTION AND FUELS CONTRIBUTION OF PARTICULAR NITROGEN OXIDES IN TOTAL NO X PRODUCTION the biggest contribution has nitric oxide (NO)its content in flue gas is in the range of: – mg/m3 next is nitrogen dioxide NO 2 in proportion % of NO its content in flue gas is in the range of: 10 – mg/m3. Low calorific gas produced in a gasifier contains high concentration of hydrocarbons bound nitrogen. These hydrocarbons can lead during combustion to high emissions of nitrogen monoxide and dioxide (NOx). Low calorific gas is cleaned extensively before it is burned in a gas turbine combustion chamber. Dual-fuel combustion using liquid fuels with differing reactivity has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low soot and NOx emissions, and high. When firing fuel oils, NOx formed by fuel-bound nitrogen can account for % of the total NOx level. One method to reduce NOx levels from boilers firing distillate oils is through the use of low nitrogen fuel oil. Low nitrogen oils can contain up to times less fuel-bound nitrogen than standard No. 2 oil (less than % fuel-bound.